Mostly about maintenance of cities and parallels with maintaining software.
Brand argues that many great buildings achieved their greatness by gradual stepwise evolution over time. New buildings need to be designed with the expectation that they will evolve, because they usually outlive their initial use. Even if a building does not change its use (e.g. it remains the same university department), the needs of its users will change and the building will need to adapt. This should be done, for example, by making sure that changing the space layout in the building is possible without changing the structure.
# XAI systems
In the last case (organized complexity and non-repetitive digital systems), the complexity of the problem cannot be reduced - we need to consider a large number of interacting processes or components. At the same time, all of them are equally important and play an important role in some aspect of the system. As Jane Jacobs puts it, the large number of interrelated variables form an organic whole. This is the end result of emergent behaviour
Importance of explainability
Almost no buildings adapt well. They’re designed not to adapt; also budgeted and financed not to, constructed not to, administered not to, maintained not to, regulated and taxed not to, even remodelled not to. But all buildings (…) adapt anyway, however poorly, because the usages in and around them are changing constantly.
How do we build software so that it gradually and gracefully degrades rather than abruptly stops working? Just like software systems, any building built using any kind of materials requires some creation vs maintenance over time. And just like with software systems, building owners are often bad at performing the necessary maintenance.
The idea of chaos engineering is perhaps a first step in this direction.
Rebuilding the shrine https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ise_Grand_Shrine -> retaining knowledge through constant revision
vernacular design restricts the scope of the problem by limiting architectural ideas to what is typically used in the local context. This reduces the design task and allows the builder to focus on skilful solutions to specific problems rather than at reinventing forms.