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# Emergent Behaviour

Last updated April 3, 2022

How complex behaviour can arise out of seemingly simple rules? Is there anything special that causes emergent behaviour?

• Ant simulations
• Mold simulations
• Community dynamics

Interesting to think about in context of single agents in multi-agent systems. How does consciousness arise? Is it just because of the rules itself (a reductionist approach) or is there something larger at play?

Gall’s law: simple alphabets produce behaviors. Even simple rules like Conway’s game of life can be Turing Complete!

How does this fit into low bandwidth communication?

## # Emergentism

Once a certain level of complexity is reached, there is a kind of qualitative leap where completely new sorts of physical laws can “emerge”—ones that are premised on, but cannot be reduced to, what came before

• In this way, the laws of chemistry can be said to be emergent from physics: the laws of chemistry presuppose the laws of physics, but can’t simply be reduced to them.
• In the same way, the laws of biology emerge from chemistry: one obviously needs to understand the chemical components of a fish to understand how it swims, but chemical components will never provide a full explanation.
• In the same way, the human mind can be said to be emergent from the cells that make it up.

## # Combination Problem

How do microlevel experiences combine to form macrolevel ones?

“Take a sentence of a dozen words, and take twelve men and tell to each one word. Then stand the men in a row or jam them in a bunch, and let each think of his word as intently as he will; nowhere will there be a consciousness of the whole sentence”

### Panpsychist response

Mental properties belong only to genuine individuals, not to mere aggregates

Then, what is the boundary of the genuine individual? This is a problem of embodiment. To be a genuine individual is not simply to be a particular (as opposed to a conglomerate or universal) but also a system that has some kind of bounded organizational unity through autopoiesis – this is a body

Their own emergence problem: how do genuine individuals emerge from particular that aren’t individuals/subjects of experience? It doesn’t solve the problem of accounting for the place of consciousness in nature, it just relocates it