# Thoughts

• ### Language

Language is the systematic and conventional use of sounds (or signs or written symbols) for the purpose of communication or self expression (Crystal, 1995 as cited in Hoff 2014:4)...

3 minute read. Last updated May 26, 2022

• ### Authorization

Authorization is the process of verifying what a user has access to (whereas authentication is the process of verifying who someone is)...

1 minute read. Last updated May 26, 2022

• ### Federation

Designing in such a way that new instances of any [[thoughts/decentralization#Centralization|centralized]] function are relatively easy to create and can maintain [[thoughts/interoperability|interoperability]] and connectivity with other instances....

1 minute read. Last updated May 26, 2022

• ### Zooko's Triangle

Postulates that names of participants can have at most 2 of these 3 properties...

1 minute read. Last updated May 20, 2022

• ### Idea machines

Post by Nadia Asparouhova (she got married!) Idea Machine: a network of operators, thinkers, and funders, centered around an ideology, that’s designed to turn ideas into outcomes....

2 minute read. Last updated May 15, 2022

• ### Prefigurative Politics

How do we create the world we want to see in the future?...

1 minute read. Last updated May 10, 2022

• ### Rhizome Philosophy

See the main [[thoughts/Rhizome Proposal|Rhizome Proposal]] Interoperable Data on the web today is mostly treated as second-class to applications....

6 minute read. Last updated May 6, 2022

• ### Clocks

Measuring time in the context of computer systems Physical Time Two types of clock...

4 minute read. Last updated May 5, 2022

• ### Causality

Causality When $a \rightarrow b$ then $a$ might have caused $b$ We say event $a$ happens before event $b$ ($a \rightarrow b$) iff: $a$ and $b$ occurred at the same node, and $a$ occurred before $b$ in that node’s local execution order $a$ is the sending of some message $m$ and $b$ is the receipt of that same message $m$ (assuming sent messages are unique) there exists some $c$ such that $a \rightarrow c$ and $c \rightarrow b$ Concurrency When $a \parallel b$ then $a$ cannot have cause $b$ (and vice versa) Concurrent does not mean simultaneous, it means two things did not know about each other when they occurred (a is concurrent with b is written as $a \parallel b$) Causal Order $\prec$ is a causal order, it is consistent with causality, a strict total order on events

1 minute read. Last updated May 5, 2022

• ### Collaborative software

Each user device has a local replica of the data and this local replica can be updated anytime (ideally even while offline), and re-sync with others when network is available Challenge: how do we reconcile concurrent updates?...

1 minute read. Last updated May 5, 2022