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Last updated April 27, 2022

Everything is in the mind. The intrinsic nature of ultimate reality is the mind.

# Pratyabhijna Self-awareness

On Self-knowledge

Nondual Śaiva philosophical tradition concerned with articulating and defending the idea that everything is Śiva, as well as the practices that lead to this realization

A form of Cosmopsychism which is in turn a form of ontological idealism

Has many holes in its axioms but again presented here just to learn:

  1. Intrinsic Existence: consciousness must exist from its own intrinsic perspective, independent of external observers
  2. Composition: consciousness is structured and composed of multiple phenomenological distinctions (elementary or higher order)
  3. Information: consciousness is specific. Each experience is particular and uniquely distinct
  4. Integration: consciousness is unified. Each experience is irreducible and cannot be subdivided into non-interdependent disjoint subsets of phenomenal distinctions
  5. Exclusion: consciousness is definite – it either has or does not have certain phenomenal distinctions


  1. We observe causally specific differentiation in our everyday world
  2. Something that is causally specific must be the effect of a specific real cause
  3. Each real cause produces only the effects that are in accord with its nature
  4. Such causes must be either internal or external to consciousness
  5. These causes cannot be external to consciousness because, per Vasubandhu and Dharmakīrti, external objects are irrelevant and logically incoherent
  6. These causes therefore must be internal to consciousness
  7. It is not the nature of something undifferentiated to produce different effects
  8. Consciousness cannot be totally undifferentiated and produce different effects
  9. Consciousness must be inherently differentiated if it is to account for the differentiated awarenesses observed in the conventional world
  10. Since there is no other viable candidate for the cause of this differentiation, the nature of reality is ultimate consciousness that inherently contains the capacity for the expression of all differentiated awarenesses

‘Ill-taught’ people satisfy themselves with conventional reality call it ‘inert’, failing to see it is a subset of Śiva. “Only consciousness can present itself as precisely what it’s not while still remaining itself”

# The memory argument against Vijñānavādin Buddhists in Utpaladeva’s Pratyabhijñā Corpus

  1. Utpaladeva does not believe that awareness can become an object of another distinct awareness
  2. Memory involves an awareness-event being the object of another awareness-event
  3. Memory thus is impossible unless they’re actually part of the same overall awareness (e.g. Śiva)

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