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# Linear Regression

Last updated Oct 5, 2022 Edit Source

Vector dimensions:

• $w$ is $(d, 1)$ (weights)
• $y$ is $(n,1)$ (targets)
• $x_i$ is $(d, 1)$ (features)
• $X$ is $(n,d)$ each row is $x_i^T$

Linear regression makes predictions $\hat y_i$ using a linear function of $x_i$: $\hat y_i = w^Tx_i$

We set $w$ to minimize the sum of squared errors: $f(w) = \sum_{i=1}^n (w^Tx_i - y_i)^2$

1. Take the derivative of $f$ and set it equal to 0 $f’(w) = 0$ gives us $w = \frac{\sum_{i=1}^n x_iy_i}{\sum_{i=1}^n x_i^2}$
2. Check to second derivative to make sure we have a minimizer (if double derivative is positive). $f’’(w) = \sum_{i=1}^n x_i^2$. As $x_i^2$ by definition must always be positive, this is a minimizer.

In d-dimensions, we minimize

$$\begin{equation} \begin{split} f(w) &= \frac 1 2 \sum_{i=1}^n (w^Tx_i - y_i)^2 \\ & = \frac 1 2 \lVert Xw - y \rVert^2 \\ & = \frac 1 2 w^TX^TXw - w^TX^Ty + \frac 1 2 y^T y \\ & = \frac 1 2 w^TAw - w^Tb + c \end{split} \end{equation}$$

where $A$ is a matrix, $b$ is a vector, and $c$ is a scalar

The generalized version of “set the derivative to 0 and solve” in d-dimensions is to find where the gradient is zero (see calculus). We get

$$\begin{equation} \begin{split} \nabla f(w) &= \begin{bmatrix} \frac{\partial f}{\partial w_1} \\ \frac{\partial f}{\partial w_2} \\ \vdots\\\ \frac{\partial f}{\partial w_d} \end{bmatrix} \\ \ &= \begin{bmatrix} \sum_{i=1}^n (w^Tx_i - yi)x_{i,1} \\ \sum_{i=1}^n (w^Tx_i - yi)x_{i,2} \\ \vdots\\\ \sum_{i=1}^n (w^Tx_i - yi)x_{i,d} \\ \end{bmatrix} \\ \ &= Aw - b \ &= X^TXw - X^Ty \end{split} \end{equation}$$

We can fit to polynomial equations using a change of basis

## # Cost

Of solving equations in the form $Aw = b$

1. $O(nd)$ to form vector $b$
2. $O(nd^2)$ to form matrix A
3. Solving a $(d,d)$ system of equations is $O(d^3)$

Overall cost is $O(nd^2+d^3)$

## # Robust Regression

We minimize the L1-norm of residuals instead of L2-norm

$$f(w) = \lVert Xw - y \rVert_1$$

However, as the L1-norm uses the absolute function, it is non-differentiable at 0. We can use a smooth approximation of the L1-norm instead, like Huber loss:

$$h(r_i) = \begin{cases} \frac 1 2 r_i^2 & |r_i| \leq \epsilon \\ \epsilon (|r_i| - \frac 1 2 \epsilon) & \textrm{otherwise} \end{cases}$$

Absolute error is more robust and non-convex errors are the most robust.

• Generally not influenced by outlier groups
• But it is non-convex so finding global minimum is hard

## # Brittle Regression

You want to minimize size of worst error across examples. For example, if in worst case the plane can crash or you perform badly on a group.

We can instead minimize the $L_\infty$ norm which is convex but non-smooth. This effectively minimizes the highest error (effectively Minimax regret in DUI).

The smooth approximation to the max function is the log-sum-exp function:

$$\max_i { z_i } \approx \log( \sum_i \exp(z_i))$$

## # Penalizing Model Complexity

Optimize $score(p) = \frac 1 2 \lVert Z_p v - y \rVert^2 + p$ where $p$ is the degree of the polynomial.

Other ones also exist which replace the $p$ term with $\lambda k$ where $k$ is the estimated degrees of freedom (for polynomials, $k = p + 1$). $\lambda$ controls how strongly we penalize complexity.

$\lambda = 1$ is called the Akaike information criterion (AIC)