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Logical fallacies

Last updated Sep 12, 2022 Edit Source

  1. Slippery Slope: conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then B, C, …, X, Y, Z will happen too. So A means Z will happen. But in reality, none of the steps logically entail each other.
  2. Hasty Generalization: conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence
  3. Post hoc ergo propter hoc: conclusion that if A occurred after B, then B must have caused A
  4. Genetic fallacy: conclusion that the origins of a person, idea, institute, or theory determines its nature, character, or worth
  5. Begging the claim: circular conclusion where the result is validated in the claim
  6. Circular argument: restates the argument rather than proving it
  7. Either/or (false dichotomy): oversimplifying an argument by reducing it to two sides or choices
  8. Ad hominem: attack on the character of a person rather than their opinions or arguments
  9. Ad populum: eoptional appeal to speak to positive/negative concepts rather than the real issue at hand (e.g. if you were a true x)
  10. Red herring: diversionary tactic that avoids key issues by diverting it to another argument
  11. Straw man: oversimplifies an opposing viewpoint and attacks weakened argument