# A Traditional Account1
- bhāvanā = “bringing into being” certain types of mental states, qualities, and traits through repeated practice
- śamatha(calm, tranquility): a state of sustained and stable attention, concentration.
mindfulness, attempting to achieve states of
- Remembering/recollecting (smṛti): holds an object in mind so as to prevent the mind from drifting away from it.
- Clear comprehension (samprajanya): clear knowing through alert awareness of experience.
- Nondual mindfulness
- present-centred open awareness with “mere nondistraction”
# A Cognitive Science Approach1
- Focused Attention
- Directing attention towards an object (e.g. breathing)
- Detecting mind wandering/distractions
- Disengagement of attention from distractors
- Leads to effortless sustained attention and ability to monitor attention and notice mind-wandering
- Study showing that focussed attention led to extreme increases in perceptual dominance both during and after meditation
- Open Awareness
- No explicit focus on objects
- Leads to acute awareness of phenomenal qualities of experience without ‘grasping’ (approach/avoidance).
This content is sourced from Professor Evan Thompson’s course materials for PHIL451A at UBC. All rights to this content is retained by Evan Thompson. ↩︎