The ant who traces a line that ends up looking like a caricature of Winston Churchill. Is it a picture or representation of him?

Resemblance is not necessary nor sufficient for representation

  • not sufficient → A can resemble B even if it fails to represent B
  • not necessary → A can represent B even if A fails to resemble B

Do we need intentionality?

Words and pictures aren’t inherently about something, that meaning is added via our own attitudes. What does matter for representation is some sort of causal link back to the original thing.