How to produce/pronounce sounds or signs, how we hear sounds


  • Phones: different sounds a language uses
  • Phonemes: meaningfully different sounds in a given language
  • Allophones: phones that do not differentiate meaning
  • Phonotactic knowledge: knowledge of constraints on the sequencing of sounds
  • Phonological idioms: words the child produces in a very adultlike way, while still incorrectly producing other words that use the very same sounds

Variations in phonetics

  • Voicing: whether vocal folds vibrate (e.g. /s/ is voiceless, /z/ is voiced)
  • Place of articulation: where the vocal tract is closed
  • Manner of articulation: how the vocal tract is closed
    • Stops: completely stop the airflow
    • Fricative: not completely stopped
  • Articulatory phonetics: describing speech sounds in terms of how they are produced
  • Phonetic features: axes of different features for sounds (e.g. voicing, place of articulation, etc.)