Main problems with Kademlia DHT is that it has poor locality. A peer could make requests that hop all the way around the globe when the information they are looking for is in their local network!

Though some DHTs make an effort to route requests through nodes with low network latency, the last few hops in any lookup request are essentially random. Thus, a node might need to send a query half way around the world to learn that its neighbor is caching a particular web page.

Choral achieves locality through clustering! It creates self-organizing clusters of nodes that fetch information from each other to avoid communicating with more distant or heavily-loaded servers.


  • ’Sloppiness’ comes from the fact that a set(key, nodeaddr) operation doesn’t just store the pointer nodeaddr on one node
    • It stores pointers along the lookup path for popular keys (this is called “spilling-over”)
    • Helps to balance load while inserting pointers, retrieving pointers, and downloading data
  • Generally set a TTL for records to expire quickly enough to keep the fraction of stale pointers below 50%

Network Layers

In order to restrict queries to nearby machines, each Coral node is a member of several DSHTs, which we call clusters, of increasing network diameter.

The diameter of a cluster is the maximum desired round-trip time between any two nodes it contains.

For example, a node can be a part of 3 clusters, and L0, L1, and L2.

  • L0 is the ‘lowest’ level and widest network diameter, having a maximum desired round-trip of so the network spans every node in the DHST
  • L2 is ‘highest’ level and narrowest network diameter, having a small maximum desired round-trip time to restrict it to local nodes

Similar concept to isochrone maps


  • The privacy sucks sucks: nodes publish not only their IP Address but the path to get there too!
  • Requires network size estimation which is hard to do if the number of nodes are small (i.e. requires a large deployment to be effective)
    • Can be done using Network Theory as lookups are on average hops
  • Not BFT: a malicious actor could pollute the DHT and cause really poor routing