Yjs is a linked-list-based, network-agnostic CRDT implementation in Javascript.

From GitHub Documentation

Yjs supports many different transport layers:

  1. WebRTC
  2. Websockets
  3. Libp2p + GossipSub
  4. Dat
  5. Matrix

At its heart, Yjs is a list-based CRDT:

  • Arrays are easy - they’re lists of arbitrary items
  • Text is a list of characters, optionally punctuated by formatting markers and embeds for rich text support
  • Maps are lists of entries. The last inserted entry for each key is used, and all other duplicates for each key are flagged as deleted


The client can ask a remote client for missing document updates by sending their state vector (often referred to as sync step 1). The remote peer can compute the missing Item objects using the clocks of the respective clients and compute a minimal update message that reflects all missing updates (sync step 2).


The underlying conceptual framework that Yjs builds on top of.

Original paper

YATA, an approach for peer-to-peer shared editing applications that ensures convergence, preserves user intentions, allows offline editing and can be utilized for arbitrary data types in the Web browser

One frustration is that applications based on complex models must therefore map the underlying data to the data structure that is supported by the used collaboration framework.

YATA works by defining all data structures in terms of a doubly-linked list. Insertions take the form of insert(id, origin, left, right, isDeleted, content). origin is set at time of insertion and can’t be changed, but left and right are references that can change.

They use to define a total ordering which depends only on the origin, where

This is quite similar to RGA